REMOTE SENSING & IMAGE PROCESSING
The era of satellite remote sensing was open in the 1960s when cameras and electronic sensors were mounted on spacecraft. Nowadays there is a big assortment of satellite systems actively recording information about the Earth. A wide variety of imagery is available from satellites. Both active and passive sensors, operating from the microwave to the ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum collect a large amount of information about the earth's surface every day. Each of the systems vary in terms of their spatial, spectral, radiometic and temporal resolution. Those characteristics play an important role in defining which applications the sensor is best suited for.
Remote sensing is the technique of deriving information about objects on the surface of the earth without physically coming into contact with them. Using various sensors. Remote sensing data can be interpreted by digitally in computer through various remote sensing softwares. Remote Sensing & GIS study carried out in the areas of -
- Agriculture production assessment.
- Land use and land cover analysis.
- Forest and vegetation.
- Soils and regional degradation.
- Urban and regional planning.
- Water resources management.
- Geosciences & Groundwater.
- Ocean and atmosphere study.
- Forest fire monitoring.
- Cyclone and flood disaster management.
- Agriculture drought monitoring and Assessment.
- Landslide, earthquake and active
Geographic information systems (GIS) (also known as Geospatial information systems) are computer software and hardware systems that enable users to capture, store, analyse and manage spatially referenced data GISs have transformed the way spatial (geographic) data, relationships and patterns in the world are able to be interactively queried, processed, analysed, mapped, modelled, visualised, and displayed for an increasingly large range of users, for a multitude of purposes.
Water is needed for domestic and municipal use in urban and rural settlements. The main demand in urban watersheds, in addition to domestic use, is from public facilities and services such as street cleaning, fire-fighting, parks, schools and hospitals; commercial facilities such as stores, apartments, and laundaries; and industrial establishments. Rural settlements need water for livestock in addition to domestic uses. A human being’s daily water demand varies between 1.5 litres and 20 litres, depending on the climate and physical activity. The daily per capita in-house water use varies from 15 litres to 20 litres in rural areas and from 100 litres to 150 litres in urban area.
The rapidly growing population in India has affected the overall environment status in the country to great extent. After independence, industrial growth has contributed significantly to economic growth in India. Due to industrialization and exploitation of natural resources, we are facing the problems of de-forestation, soil erosion, water pollution, land degradation, etc. The main focus of authorities remains on reducing industrial pollution.
As we know that there is about 70% of water on our planet out of which only about 2.5% is fresh water that is available for potable purposes. For more than 30 years there has been remarkable growth in the need for quality water purification by all categories of users – municipal, industrial, institutional, medical, commercial and residential. Water pollution is one of the major problems for the community.
The Environmental study required for sustainable development and improved well-being through empowering stakeholders at global, regional and national levels. It aims to do this by providing open web platforms, services and access to timely, substantiated knowledge about the environment and emerging issues and by strengthening capacities to make use of substantiated knowledge in decision-making. To do this, the work will build on existing investments and efforts, successful activities, networks and partnerships, recognized good practices and comparative advantage in the areas of data analysis and assessments.
Scientific evidence shows that ecosystems are under unprecedented pressure, threatening prospects for sustainable development. While the challenges are daunting, they also provide opportunities for local communities, business and government to innovate for the benefit of communities, economies and the global environment. However, in order to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, timely responses that are proportionate to the scale of the environmental challenges will be required. In creating such responses, governments, the international community, the private sector, civil society and the general public all have an important role to play.
“All noise is waste,
So cultivate quietness in your speech, in your thoughts, in your emotions”
Ancient Indian Proverb